Merck Manual

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  • Abbreviations

    The following abbreviations are used throughout the text; other abbreviations are expanded at first mention in the chapter or sub-chapter.

    ad lib as much as desired
    ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
    ADP adenosine diphosphate
    ALT alanine aminotransferase
    AST aspartate aminotransferase
    ATP adenosine triphosphate
    bid twice a day
    bpm beats per minute
    BUN blood urea nitrogen
    C Celsius (Centigrade)
    cal calorie(s)
    CBC(s) complete blood count(s)
    CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    CFU colony-forming unit
    CK creatine kinase
    cm centimeter(s)
    CNS central nervous system
    CPK creatine phosphokinase
    CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    CSF cerebrospinal fluid
    CT computed tomography
    cu cubic
    DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation
    dL deciliter(s)
    DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
    ECG electrocardiogram
    eg for example
    ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    EPA Environmental Protection Agency
    EPG eggs per gram (of feces)
    et seq and the following one(s)
    EU European Union
    F Fahrenheit
    FDA Food and Drug Administration
    fL femtoliter(s)
    ft foot, feet
    g gram(s)
    gal. gallon(s)
    GI gastrointestinal
    GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    H&E hematoxylin and eosin
    Hgb hemoglobin
    hr hour(s)
    ie that is
    Ig immunoglobulin (with class following: A, D, E, G, or M)
    IL interleukin
    IM intramuscular(ly)
    in. inch(es)
    IP intraperitoneal(ly)
    IU international unit(s)
    IV intravenous(ly)
    kcal kilocalorie(s)
    kg kilogram(s)
    L liter(s)
    LDH lactate dehydrogenase
    lb pound(s)
    m meter(s)
    M molar
    Mcal megacalorie(s)
    mcg microgram
    mcm micrometer
    ME metabolizable energy
    mEq milliequivalent(s)
    mg milligram(s)
    min minute(s)
    mL milliliter(s)
    mm millimeter(s)
    mo month(s)
    mol mole(s)
    mOsm milliosmole(s)
    nm nanometer(s)
    MRI magnetic resonance imaging
    NRC National Research Council
    NSAID(s) nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug(s)
    OIE Office International des Épizooties
    oz ounce(s)
    p/pp page/pages
    PCR polymerase chain reaction
    PCV packed cell volume
    pH negative logarithm of hydrogen ion activity
    PO per os, orally
    ppb part(s) per billion
    ppm part(s) per million
    qid four times a day
    qs ad quantity sufficient to make
    RBC(s) red blood cell(s)
    RNA ribonucleic acid
    RT-PCR reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
    SC subcutaneous(ly)
    sec second(s)
    SI units International System of Units
    SPF specific pathogen free
    sq square
    tbsp tablespoon(s)
    TDN total digestible nutrients
    tid three times a day
    tsp teaspoon(s)
    U unit(s)
    UK United Kingdom
    USDA United States Department of Agriculture
    USA United States of America
    USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (former)
    WBC(s) white blood cell(s)
    wk week(s)
    wt weight
    yr year(s)
    α alpha
    β beta
    δ delta
    ε epsilon
    γ gamma
    λ lambda
    μ micro, mu
    κ kappa
    σ sigma

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